New
New
Year 10
Edexcel
Higher

The genome

I can describe what the genome is, its role and where it is stored in cells.

New
New
Year 10
Edexcel
Higher

The genome

I can describe what the genome is, its role and where it is stored in cells.

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Lesson details

Key learning points

  1. Genetic material is stored in the nucleus of plant and animal cells, and in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells.
  2. Genetic material of organisms is made of a chemical substance called DNA, which is made up of smaller chemical units.
  3. The DNA in every cell is wound up into tightly-packed structures called chromosomes.
  4. Sections of chromosomes are called genes; short sections of DNA which carry instructions for features and processes.
  5. All the DNA in a cell is called the genome, the similarity of a genome indicates how similar individuals or species are.

Common misconception

That all DNA codes for features rather than processes that are shared by all living organisms; also that animals are the only living organism that have DNA.

Make the role of DNA in features and processes explicit, using non-animal examples. Re-iterate the common processes of living organisms, and therefore why there are similarities in the genome.

Keywords

  • Nucleus - A structure in animal, plant and fungi cells that stores the genetic material (DNA).

  • DNA - A large chemical molecule made of smaller chemical groups, it carries the genetic code of all living organisms.

  • Chromosome - Structures made of tightly packaged DNA.

  • Gene - A short section of DNA that carries the genetic code to provide instructions for an inherited feature or process.

  • Genome - All of the DNA of an organism that codes for and controls the inherited features and processes.

Keep going back to the idea that all living organisms share common processes, the instructions for these are stored in the genetic code in the DNA.
Teacher tip

Licence

This content is © Oak National Academy Limited (2024), licensed on Open Government Licence version 3.0 except where otherwise stated. See Oak's terms & conditions (Collection 2).

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6 Questions

Q1.
All living organisms are made up of .
Correct Answer: Cells
Q2.
In which cell organelle is genetic material (DNA) stored in plant and animal cells?
chloroplasts
mitochondria
cell wall
Correct answer: nucleus
cell membrane
Q3.
Where is bacterial DNA stored?
An image in a quiz
flagella
Correct answer: cytoplasm
cell wall
nucleus
chloroplasts
Q4.
Which of the following is NOT a life process?
growth
movement
Correct answer: breathing
respiration
reproduction
Q5.
True or false? Genetic information provides the instructions for life processes.
An image in a quiz
Correct answer: true
false
Q6.
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxygen nucleic acid
Correct answer: Deoxyribonucleic acid
Deoxygenated nitrogen acid

6 Questions

Q1.
Genetic material is stored in the of plant and animal cells.
Correct Answer: nucleus, nuclei
Q2.
Match the word to its meaning.
Correct Answer:nucleus,a sub-cellular structure that stores DNA

a sub-cellular structure that stores DNA

Correct Answer:DNA,a large chemical molecule made of smaller chemical groups

a large chemical molecule made of smaller chemical groups

Correct Answer:chromosome,structures made of tightly packaged DNA

structures made of tightly packaged DNA

Correct Answer:gene,a short section of DNA

a short section of DNA

Correct Answer:genome,all of the DNA of an organism

all of the DNA of an organism

Q3.
What is this structure called?
An image in a quiz
Correct Answer: Chromosome
Q4.
Put these in size order, starting with the smallest.
An image in a quiz
1 - chemical group, A,T,G,C
2 - gene
3 - chromosome
4 - genome
Q5.
True or false? The more similar the species, the more similar their genomes.
Correct answer: true
false
Q6.
Who is incorrect?
Sofia: Non-coding DNA are part of the genome.
Andeep: Non-coding sections of DNA are not genes.
Correct answer: Jacob: Non-coding sections of DNA are genes.
Lucas: Non-coding DNA are found between genes.